Стандарт FCI

28.01.2014 / EN

FCI-Standard N° 234

XOLOITZCUINTLE

(Hairless Variety & Coated Variety)

Hairless variety

Coated variety

These illustrations do not necessarily show the ideal example of the breed.

TRANSLATION: Federación Canófila Mexicana, A.C. Original version: (ES).

Revised by Renée Sporre-Willes.

ORIGIN: Mexico.

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD: 08.10.2012.

UTILIZATION: Standard Size: Watchdog.

Intermediate Size: Watchdog.

Miniature Size: Companion Dog.

FCI-CLASSIFICATION: Group 5 Spitz and Primitive Types.

Section 6 Primitive Type.

Without working trial.

PREAMBLE: The gene that produces the absence of hair is dominant.

Nevertheless, some puppies are born with a coat. The hairless to hairless breeding will produce

the least numbers of coated dogs therefore this has been preferred. It has been proven that this

breeding maintains and improves the quality of the breed.

For providing genetic diversity, well-constructed coated Xoloitzcuintles, with excellent type,

conformation, standard accepted colours and coat, may be used for breeding purposes.

The breeding between two coated Xoloitzcuintles is not permitted.

Xoloitzcuintle coated breeding stock must be the offspring of registered parents with at least

three generations of hairless to hairless breeding. The coated variety must be evaluated as a true

breed at dog shows, to be able to be bred to hairless dogs only.

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: Their origin dates far back in history. The meat of the Xoloitzcuintle

or Xoloitzcuintli in Nahuatl language, Xoloitzcuintle in Spanish was considered a delicacy in pre­

Hispanic Mexico,eaten by the indigenous Mexicans in special ceremonies as a ritual to their beliefs and

was regarded as a representative of the god "Xolotl", from which its name obviously originates.

Its task was to guide the souls of the dead to their eternal destination. Therefore the dog became scarce,

reaching a point of near extinction. The Federación Canófila Mexicana (Mexican Kennel Club)

rescued thisnative breed and has used the Xoloitzcuintle on its logo since 1940. The hairless variety

of the breed is also known by the name perro pelón mexicano" (Mexican Hairless Dog).

The coated variety was known by the natives as "itzcuintle".

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

The Xoloitzcuintle is an ancient natural primitive dog, modelled by evolution, going by the general

conformation, it is a very attractive slim and elegant dog, moderate in all aspects, that express speed,

harmony and strength without appearing coarse, possess a clean cut outline, it has a well-proportioned

body,chest is ample, ribs well sprung, limbs and tail are long. There are two varieties in the breed,

hairless and coated, both identical in conformation except for coat and dentition.

Hairless variety: The most important characteristic is the complete or almost complete lack of any

hair in the body,with a smooth and soft skin. The particular feature is that the dentition is nearly

always incomplete, associated to thecongenital hairless gene.

Coated variety: A very attractive, completely short coated dog. Coat should be tight, flat and smooth

with no undercoat.

The coated variety should have the same harmonious proportions as the hairless variety in

conformation, the dentition must be complete (42 teeth) normally developed and in a normal position.

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The body, measured from the point of shoulder to the point of

buttock and from the highest point of the withers to the ground, is slightly longer than high:

approximately 10:9. Femalesmay be slightly longer than males due to their reproductive function.

The skull and the muzzle are approximately of equal length.

There are three sizes in the breed, all lean and sturdy, well-muscled, with a spacious ribcage

and moderate bone, the outline is rectangular and the distance from the elbow to the ground is

equal to or slightly greater than the distance from the withers to the elbow.

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT: The Xoloitzcuintle is a silent and calm dog, cheerful, alert and

intelligent, he might be suspicious toward strangers, he is a good watchdog and an excellent companion.

He is never aggressive. The coated variety should be equal in every aspect.

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION:

Skull: Broad and strong, wedge-shaped. Seen from above it is wide and elegant; tapering towards the muzzle

with an occipital protuberance that is not well-defined. The skull and muzzle planes are almost parallel.

Stop: Slight, but well defined.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: The nose should be dark in dark-coloured dogs. It can be brown or pinkish in bronze-coloured dogs,

spotted in spotted dogs.

Muzzle: Seen from the side, the muzzle is straight and the upper and lower jaws are square and very strong

The tongue is generally pink but may have black markings, spots or marks, which is a common characteristic

of the breed. The tongue is always inside the mouth, a paralyzed tongue hanging outside the mouth is

disqualifying.

Lips: Tight and close fitting.

Jaws / Teeth: Both varieties: with strong jaws. The incisors should close perfectly in a scissor bite with

the superiorincisors overlapping; the interior surface of the superior incisors touching the external

surface of the lower incisors,set square to the jaw. A level bite, edge to edge, is also permitted.

Hairless variety: Complete set of incisors is preferred.

The absence of a few incisors, canines, molars, pre-molars or rotated teeth should not be penalized,

as many dogs donot have deep roots. Genetically, the absence of hair is closely linked to the absence of teeth.

Coated variety:

Full dentition (42 teeth), a scissor or pincer bite is required, normally developed and normally

positioned teeth.

Cheeks: Slightly developed.

Eyes: Medium size, almond-shaped, with an alert and very intelligent expression.

The colour varies according to theskin/coat colour in black, brown, hazel, amber or yellow tones.

Darker colours are preferred and both eyes should match.

The eyelids should be well-pigmented black, brown or grey in dark-coloured dogs.

Light-coloured or pink eyelids aretolerated in light-coloured dogs but this is not a desirable colour.

Ears: In both varieties the ears are long, large, expressive and very elegant and of fine texture;

they are reminiscent of “bat” ears. They should be held erect when alert. In the alert position their

axis should be 50 – 80 degrees from horizontal.

Both ears should be in the same position, when alert. Droopy or cropped ears are disqualifying.

NECK: In both varieties the neck is carried high, smooth and dry. Slightly arched. Proportionately long.

Slim, flexible, well-muscled and very elegant. The skin on the neck is firm, elastic and close-fitting,

without dewlap. Puppies show folds which disappear with age.

BODY: Strongly built.

Topline: Perfectly straight and level.

Back: Short, strong and firm.

Loin: Strong and muscular.

Croup: Profile should be slightly convex with an inclination of approximately 40 degrees to the horizontal.

Chest: Seen in profile it is long and deep, descending to the elbows. The ribs are well sprung, not exaggerated,

nor flat.

Seen from the front the upper chest is of good breadth. The point of the sternum should not protrude.

Underline and belly: Graceful line. Abdomen muscled and moderately tucked up.

TAIL: Long, thin and may have some tufts of hair, tapering from the base to the tip in the hairless variety,

and completely covered with short hair in the coated variety. In movement, it is carried up in a curve, never

touching the back. When resting, it should hang with a slight curve at the end. Sometimes it is placed between

the legs due to cold temperatures. The tail should nearly reach the hock. The tail set should be an extension

of the croup when the dog is at rest.

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

Shoulder: Flat and muscled with good scapula-humeral angulation which allows a long, free and elegant stride.

Elbow: Strong and firm. They fit close to the chest, never turned outwards.

Forearm: Forelegs seen from the front are straight and perpendicular to the ground.

Metacarpus (Pastern): Firm and almost perpendicular.

Forefeet: Of medium length (hare’s foot) with toes arched and close together, may have short coarse hairs in

the Hairless variety, and be covered with short hair in the Coated variety. Nails are black in dark-coloured dogs,

and lighter in bronze or blond dogs. The nails should be trimmed. The foot pads are strong and very resistant

to any terrain. The inter-digital membranes are well-developed. Dewclaws should not be present on all four limbs

except in countries where it is illegal to remove them.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: The hindquarters should be strong and well-muscled. Seen from behind they are perfectly

straight and parallel and never close. The angle of the pelvis to the upper thigh joint, stifle and hock, are

adequately open to permit both free and strong movement of the legs.

Thigh: Well-muscled.

Stifle (Knee): With a moderate bend.

Hock joint: Cow hocks are highly undesirable.

Hind feet: As forefeet.

GAIT / MOVEMENT: The dog should move freely with a long, elegant, springy step; the trot is quick and

flowing with head and tail carried high. Hindquarters with free and strong movement.

SKIN:

Hairless Variety: Due to the total absence of hair, the skin of this breed is of great importance. It is smooth,

sensitive to touch and feels warmer because of direct heat emission due to the lack of hair; however its body

temperature is the same as in other dogs with hair. The difference with haired breeds, which disperse body heat

through natural ventilation, is that the skin requires more care from exposure to the sun and elements due to its

lack of natural protection. Accidental scars are not penalized. The dog tends to sweat through its feet

(foot pads and inter-digital membranes), which is why it seldom pants, except in extreme heat. It should

be free of obvious skin problems.

Coated Variety: The skin of the coated variety is smooth and must be completely covered with hair.

COAT

Hair:

Hairless variety: The characteristic of this breed is the total lack of hair on the body (hairless or nude dog)

although there are some short, coarse thick hairs of any colour on the forehead and back of the neck that

should never be longer than 2.5 centimetres and should never form a long, soft topknot. It is common to find

coarse hair on the feet and on the end of the tail; however its absence should not be penalized.

Coated Variety: This variety has hair all over its body. It can be expected to have very little hair on its belly

and inside the rear legs.

The hair should be short, flat, preferably smooth and with no undercoat.

Colour:

Hairless variety: Solid, uniform, dark coloured skin is preferred. The range includes black, blackish grey,

slate grey, dark grey, reddish, liver, bronze or blond. There may also be spots of any colour, including

white markings.

Coated Variety: Solid, uniform, dark colours are preferred. The range includes black, blackish grey,

slate grey, dark grey, reddish, liver, bronze or blond. There may also be spots of any colour, including

white markings.

SIZE:

There are three sizes for males as well as females.

Standard variety: From 46 to 60 centimetres, tolerance of +2 cms in top quality dogs.

Intermediate variety: From 36 to 45 centimetres.

Miniature variety: From 25 to 35 centimetres.

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness

with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon

the health and welfare of the dog.

  • Very broad head.

  • Slack, loose or wrinkled skin in adult dogs.

  • Loose, slack or wrinkled skin on the neck in adult dogs.

  • Excessive dewlap.

  • Light coloured, round or protruding eyes.

  • Sunken (lordosis) or arched (xifosis) back.

  • Steep croup.

  • Excessively cow hocked.

  • Tail tightly curled over the back.

  • Short tail.

  • Flat feet.

    SEVERE FAULTS:

  • Long narrow body with short legs.

    DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

  • Aggressive or overly shy.

  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.

  • Atypical dogs.

  • Blindness or deafness.

  • Any Hairless or Coated Xoloitzcuintle with prognathism or

  • enognathism.

  • Deviated jaw (very wry mouth).

  • Dogs with a poor bite, denoted by poor positioning of the jaws.

  • Paralyzed tongue (Outside the mouth).

  • Blue eyes or different coloured eyes (Heterocromia).

  • Cropped or droopy ears.

  • Docked tail, short tail.

  • Hair on any part of the hairless varieties body, except slight hair on the head, ears, neck, feet

  • and tail.

  • Hair other than short or smooth in the coated variety.

  • Albinism.

  • Merle colour. Also any other colour not mentioned in the standard, i.e. black and tan, brindle,

  • white, sable etc.

  • Dogs over 62 cms or under 25 cms.

    N.B.:

  • Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.

  • Only functionally and clinically healthy dogs, with breed typical conformation should be used for breeding.

16.02.2011/EN
FCI-Standard N° 234

XOLOITZCUINTLE
(Hairless Variety & Coated Variety)

 

TRANSLATION: Federaciуn Canуfila Mexicana, A.C. Revised by: J. Mulholland and R. Triquet / Original version : (ES).

 

ORIGIN: Mexico.

 

DATE OF PUBLICATION OF THE OFFICIAL VALID STANDARD: 13.10.2010.

 

UTILIZATION: Standard Size: Watchdog. Intermediate Size: Watchdog. Miniature Size: Companion Dog.

 

FCI-CLASSIFICATION: Group 5 Spitz and Primitive Types. Section 6 Primitive Type. Without working trial.

 

PREAMBLE: The gene that produces the absence of hair is dominant. Nevertheless, some puppies are born with a coat. The hairless to hairless breeding will produce the least number of coated puppies therefore this has been preferred. It has been proven that this breeding maintains and improves the quality of the breed.

Crossing hairless to hairless dogs fosters the appearance of a fatal gene affecting 25% of homozygous puppies and should be given careful attention. Considering the rarity of the breed, and the difficulty that some breeders in distant locations have in finding breeding stock, and for the purpose of providing genetic diversity, well constructed coated Xoloitzcuintles may be used for breeding but never for exhibition in beauty contests. Breeding between coated Xoloitzcuintles is not permitted. Xoloitzcuintle coated breeding stock must be the offspring of registered parents with at least one generation of hairless to hairless breeding.

The meat of the Xoloitzcuintle or Xoloitzcuintli in Nahuatl language was considered a delicacy in pre-hispanic Mexico, eaten by the indigenous Mexicans in special ceremonies as a ritual to their beliefs, and therefore became scarce, reaching a point of near extinction. The Federaciуn Canofila Mexicana (Mexican Kennel Club) rescued this native breed and has used the Xoloitzcuintle on its logo since 1940.

 

BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: Their origin dates far back in history. The indigenous people fed on its highly desired meat in special ceremonies. The Xoloitzcuintli in Nahuatl language or Xoloitzcuintle in Spanish, was regarded as a representative of the god “Xolotl”, from which its name obviously originates. Its task was to guide the souls of the dead to their eternal destination. The hairless variety of the breed is also known by the name “perro pelуn mexicano” (Mexican Hairless Dog). The coated variety was known by the natives as “izcuintle”.

 

GENERAL APPEARANCE:

Hairless variety: It is a very attractive dog; the most important characteristic is the complete or almost complete lack of any hair, with a smooth and soft skin. It has a well-proportioned body, chest is ample, ribs well sprung, limbs and tail are long.

Coated variety: A very attractive, completely coated dog with the same harmonious proportions as the hairless variety. The coat can be of any colour, length and texture. Its body is well-proportioned, chest is ample, ribs well sprung, limbs and tail are long.

 

 

IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The body, measured from the point of shoulder to the point of buttock and from the highest point of the withers to the ground, is slightly longer than tall: approximately 10:9. Females may be slightly longer than males due to their reproductive function. The skull and the muzzle are approximately of equal length.

 

BEHAVIOUR AND TEMPERAMENT: The Xoloitzcuintle is a silent and calm dog, cheerful, alert and intelligent, suspicious toward strangers, a good watchdog and an excellent companion. It is never aggressive.

 

HEAD

CRANIAL REGION:

Skull: Lupoid type, broad and strong, wedge-shaped. Seen from above it is wide and elegant; tapering toward the muzzle with an occipital protuberance that is not well-defined. The skull and muzzle planes are almost parallel.

Stop: Slight, but well defined.

FACIAL REGION:

Nose: The nose should be dark in dark-coloured dogs. It can be brown or pink in bronze-coloured dogs, pink or brown in blond specimens and spotted in spotted dogs.

Muzzle: Seen from the side, the muzzle is straight and the upper and lower jaws are very strong.

Lips: Tight and close fitting.

Jaws / Teeth:

Hairless Xoloitzcuintle: Strong jaws. The incisors should close perfectly in a scissor bite with the superior incisors overlapping; the interior surface of the superior incisors touching the external surface of the lower incisors, squaring the jaw. A level bite, edge to edge, is also permitted. The absence of a few incisors, canines, molars, pre-molars or rotated teeth should not be penalized, as many dogs do not have deep roots. Genetically, the absence of hair is closely linked to the absence of teeth.

Coated Xoloitzcuintle: Full dentition with scissor or pincer bite is required.

The Xolo’s tongue is generally pink but may have black markings, spots or stripes, which is a common characteristic of the breed. The tongue is always inside the mouth.

Cheeks: Slightly developed.

Eyes: Medium size, almond-shaped, with an alert and very intelligent expression. The colour varies according to the skin colour in black, brown, hazel, amber or yellow tones. Darker colours are preferred and both eyes should match. The eyelids should be well-pigmented black, brown or grey in dark-coloured dogs.

Light-coloured or pink eyelids are permitted in light-coloured dogs although this is not the most desirable colour.

Ears:

Hairless variety: The ears are long, large, expressive, very elegant and of fine texture; they are reminiscent of “bat” ears. They should be held erect when alert. In the alert position their axis should be 50 – 80 degrees from horizontal.

Coated variety: The ears are long, large and elegant. They may be held erect or they may be down. Any position is acceptable. Both ears should be in the same position, when alert.

 

NECK: Carried high. Upper line slightly arched. Proportionately long. Slim, flexible, well-muscled and very elegant. The skin on the neck is firm, elastic and close-fitting, without dewlap. Puppies show folds which disappear with age.

 

BODY: Strongly built.

Topline: Perfectly straight and level.

Loin: Strong and muscular.

Croup: Profile should be slightly convex with an inclination of approximately 40 degrees to the horizontal.

Chest: Seen in profile it is long and deep, descending to the elbows. The ribs are slightly sprung but never flat. Seen from the front the upper chest is of good breadth. The point of the sternum should not protrude.

Underline and belly: Graceful line. Abdomen muscled and moderately tucked up.

 

TAIL: Long, thin and may have some tufts of hair, tapering from the base to the tip in the hairless Xoloitzcuintle, and completely covered with hair in the coated Xoloitzcuintle. In movement, it is carried up in a curve, never touching the back. When resting, it should hang with a slight hook at the end. Sometimes it is placed between the legs due to cold temperatures, or, this can be considered a sign of shyness.

The tail should nearly reach the hock. The tail set should be an extension of the croup when the dog is at rest.

 

LIMBS

FOREQUARTERS:

Shoulder: Flat and muscled with good scapula-humeral angulation which allows a long, free and elegant stride.

Elbow: Strong. They fit close to the chest, never turned outwards.

Forearm: Forelegs seen from the front are straight and perpendicular to the ground.

Forefeet: Of medium length (hare’s foot) with toes arched and close together, may have short coarse hairs in the Hairless Xoloitzcuintle, and be covered with hair in the Coated Xoloitzcuintle. Nails are black in dark-coloured dogs, and lighter in bronze or blond dogs. The nails should be trimmed. The foot pads are strong and very resistant to any terrain. The inter-digital membranes are well-developed. Dewclaws should be removed on all four limbs except in countries where it is illegal to remove them.

HINDQUARTERS:

General appearance: The hindquarters should be strong and well-muscled. Seen from behind they are perfectly straight and parallel and never close. The angle of the pelvis to the upper thigh joint, stifle and hock, are adequately open to permit both free and strong movement of the legs.

Stifle (Knee): With a moderate bend.

Hock joint: Cow hocks are to be strongly penalized.

Hind feet: As forefeet.

 

GAIT / MOVEMENT: In accordance with its angulations, the dog should move freely with a long, elegant, springy step; trot is quick and flowing, head and tail carried high.

 

SKIN:

Hairless Variety: Due to the total absence of hair, the skin of this breed is of great importance. It is smooth, sensitive to touch and feels warmer because of direct heat emission due to the lack of hair; however its body temperature is the same as in other dogs with hair. The difference with haired breeds, which disperse body heat through natural ventilation, is that the skin requires more care from exposure to the sun and elements due to its lack of natural protection. Accidental scars are not penalized. The dog tends to sweat through its feet (foot pads and inter-digital membranes), which is why other than in extreme heat it seldom pants. It should be free of obvious skin problems.

Coated Variety: The skin of the coated Xoloitzcuintle is smooth and should be completely covered with hair.

 

COAT

Hair:

Hairless variety: The characteristic of this breed is the total lack of hair on the body (hairless or nude dog) although there are some short, coarse thick hairs of any colour on the forehead and back of the neck that should never be longer than 2.5 centimeters and should never form a long, soft topknot. It is common to find rough hair on the feet and on the end of the tail, however its absence should not be penalized.

Coated Variety: This variety of the Xoloitzcuintle has hair all over its body. It can be expected to have very little hair on its belly and inside the rear legs. The hair may be of any length or texture, covering the entire body.

Colour:

Hairless variety: Solid, uniform, dark colours are preferred. The range includes black, blackish grey, slate grey, dark grey, reddish, liver, bronze, and blond. There may also be spots of any colour, including white or tri-coloured markings.

Coated Variety: It can have any colour or combination of colours in different tones.

 

SIZE: There are three sizes for males as well as females.

Standard Variety: From 46 to 60 centimeters, tolerance of +2 cm in top quality dogs.

Intermediate Variety: From 36 to 45 centimeters.

Miniature Variety: From 25 to 35 centimeters.

 

FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.

 

  • Very broad head.
  • Slack, loose or wrinkled skin in adult dogs.
  • Loose, slack or wrinkled skin on the neck in adult dogs.
  • Excessive dewlap.
  • Light coloured, round or protruding eyes.
  • Sunken (lordosis) or arched (xifosis) back.
  • Steep croup.
  • Excessively cow hocked.
  • Tail tightly curled over the back.
  • Short tail.
  • Flat feet.

 

 

SEVERE FAULTS:

 

  • Long narrow body with short legs

 

 

DISQUALIFYING FAULTS

 

  • Aggressive or overly shy.
  • Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
  • Atypical dogs.
  • Any Hairless or Coated Xoloitzcuintle with prognathism or enognathism.
  • Dogs with a poor bite, denoted by poor positioning of the jaws.
  • Protruding tongue.
  • Blue eyes or flecks of blue in the eyes.
  • Cropped or droopy ears, in the Hairless Xoloitzcuintle.
  • Docked tail.
  • Hair on any part of the hairless Xoloitzcuintle body other than the head, ears, neck, feet and tail.
  • Any Xoloitzcuintle coated dog.
  • Albinism, blindness or deafness.
  • Dogs taller than 62 centimeters or lower than 25 centimeters.

 

 

N.B.: Males should have two testicles of normal appearance fully descended into the scrotum.

 

The latest amendments are in bold characters.